Experimental Analysis of Attacks on RSA & Rabin Cryptosystems using Quantum Shor’s Algorithm
In this world of massive communication networks, data security and confidentiality are of crucial importance for maintaining secured private communication and protecting information against eavesdropping attacks. Existing cryptosystems provide data security and confidentiality by the use of encryption and signature algorithms for secured communication. Classical computers use cryptographic algorithms that use the product of two large prime numbers for generating public and private keys. These classical algorithms are based on the fact that integer factorization is a non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP) problem and requires super-polynomial time making it impossible for large enough integers. Shor’s algorithm is a well-known algorithm for factoring large integers in polynomial time and takes only O(b3) time and O(b) space on b-bit number inputs. Shor’s algorithm poses a potential threat to the current security system with the ongoing advancements of Quantum computers. This paper discusses how Shor’s algorithm will be able to break integer factorization-based cryptographic algorithms, for example, Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) and Rabin Algorithms. As a proof of concept, experimental analysis of Quantum Shor’s algorithm on existing public-key cryptosystems using IBM Quantum Experience is performed for factorizing integers of moderate length (seven bits) due to limitations of thirty-two qubits in present IBM quantum computers. In a nutshell, this work will demonstrate how Shor’s algorithm poses threat to confidentiality and authentication services.
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